Sample: 0,5 ml EDTA-blood, Tick
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a Gram-negative bacterium (rickettsia), a causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and fever in horses and other ruminants. Dogs, horses and sheep symptoms are similar to those in humans, making them an important model in studying the disease.
Modes of transmission
Different mammals serve as a reservoir, and vectors of the bacterium are ticks belonging to a complex of Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus.
The signs of the disease show in 5-21 days after the tick bite. Symptoms are non-specific, such as fever, headache, malaise and myalgia. Laboratory report show leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocitopenia and higher activities of hepatic enzymes.
Granulocytic anaplasmosis is treated with antibiotics.
During outdoor activities, especially in the summer, you should use repellents and appropriate clothing.
Symptoms usually last for 30 days. In case of complications and more severe form of the disease, half of the patients requires hospitalization. Fatal outcome is reported in less than 1% of the cases, mostly due to secondary infections.
The prevalence of the infection ranges from 2-45% in Europe, with most of the cases reported from June to August.
Pusterla, N., Huder, J.B., Leutenegger, C.M., Braun, U., Madigan, J.E., and Lutz, H. (1999). Quantitative real-time PCR for detection of members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup in host animals and Ixodes ricinus ticks. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 1329–1331.
Thomas, R.J., Stephen Dumler, J., and Carlyon, J.A. (2009). Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7, 709–722.