Obesity Labrador Retriever Type (ADI)
Obesity Labrador Retriever type, or adiposity, is defined as an accumulation of excessive amounts of adipose tissue, or body fat. Generally, obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in companion animals. It is estimated that the prevalence of canine obesity in developed countries ranges between 34% and 59%. Obesity is usually caused by excessive dietary intake or inadequate exercise. The concern about obesity is connected to many health problems that accompany the adiposity. An individual can be predisposed to obesity based on numerous factors, including genetics, the amound of physical activity, and the energy content of the diet. The influence of genetics on obesity has been examined in dogs and cat. Another important risk factor for obesity is neutering, as well as gender as predisposing factor. Of all examined dog breeds, Labrador retrievers have the greatest documented obesity prevalence and they have appeared to be more food motivated than other breeds.
Characteristics and Symptoms
Obesity in Labrador retrievers, as well as humans and cats, has a destructive effect on the health and longevity. Obesity in Labrador retrievers may cause orthopedic disease, degenerative myelopathy, abnormalities in circulating lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory disease, urinary disorders, reproductive disorders, neoplasia (tumors), dermatological diseases and anesthetic complications.
A deletion in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene has been associated with obesity in Labrador retriever dogs. The mutation causes a disruption of β-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and β-endorphin and consequentially causes an increase in body weight, adiposity, and food motivation. Known role of β-MSH and β-endorphin are in appetite regulation, satiety, and energy balance.
An allele frequency of 12% in Labrador retriever population has been determined, of 383 tested dogs 20% were heterozygous and 2% were homozygous. An interesting observation has been made among Labrador retrievers used as assistance dogs, where the allelic frequency was markedly higher at 45%.
Raffan, E., Dennis, R. J., O’Donovan, C. J., Becker, J. M., Scott, R. A., Smith, S. P., O’Rahilly, S. (2016). A Deletion in the Canine POMC Gene Is Associated with Weight and Appetite in Obesity-Prone Labrador Retriever Dogs. Cell Metabolism, 23(5), 893–900. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2016.04.012