Canine Coronavirus (CCoV)
Canine coronavirus belongs to family Coronaviridae, together with feline coronavirus. There are three types of canine coronavirus: enteric, pantropic and canine respiratory coronavirus, and I and II serotypes.
Sample: Rectal swab
Modes of transmission
Enteric canine coronavirus is transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infected dogs usually shed the virus for 6-9 days after infection.
Enteric canine coronavirus causes gastrointestinal disease followed by loss of appetite, vomiting, fluid diarrhea, dehydration and, only occasionally, death. Fatal disease commonly occurs as a consequence of mixed infections with CCoV together with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine adenovirus type 1 or canine distemper virus.
Pantropic CCoV causes a systemic disease followed by a fatal outcome in pups. Clinical signs consist of fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting, hemorrhagic diarrhea, severe leukopenia and neurological signs (ataxia, seizures) followed by death within 2 days after the onset of the symptoms. Older dogs, 6 months of age, slowly recover from the disease.
Respiratory CCoV is responsible for mild respiratory signs and is recognized as etiological agent of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) together with Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine adenoviruses type 1 and type 2, canine parainfluenza virus, canine herpesvirus, reoviruses and influenza viruses.
Treatment is symptomatic and in most cases without any consequences. In rare cases the outcome can be fatal, mostly in neonatal CCoV infection and co-infection of respiratory CCoV and other CIRD etiological agents.
CCoV vaccination is required in Croatia. First dose is administrated at the age of 7-8 weeks. Annual boosters are required.
CCoV has a worldwide distribution. Incidence of enteric CCoV is 70-90%, with serotype I being more common. Incidence of respiratory CCoV is from 17.8-54.7%, according to serological studies.
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